Fiasco S2E8: "Pardon Me" Bibliography

BOOKS

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Toobin, Jeffrey. Opening Arguments: A Young Lawyer’s First Case: United States V. Oliver North. Viking, 1991.

Walsh, Lawrence E. Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. Times Books/Random House, 1994.

ARTICLES

“Didn’t Know Contras Got Aid, Bush Says,” Associated Press, Dec. 3, 1986.

“Bush Asserts Vindication in Iraq Affair,” Washington Post, Aug. 6, 1987. 

“Attorney For Oliver North Sought Pardon During White House Meeting,” Associated Press, Dec. 23, 1987.

“Bush, Rather Swap Insults in TV Exchange,” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 26, 1988.

“Dole Wins in Iowa, With Robertson Next,” New York Times, Feb. 9, 1988.

“Reagan Hazy on Iran-Contra,” Chicago Tribune, Feb. 23, 1990.

“Poindexter guilty in Iran-contra cover-up,” Hartford Courant, Apr. 8, 1990.

“GOP Lawmaker Wants Iran-Contra Office Closed,” Associated Press, Jul. 24, 1990. 

“Weinberger Faces 5 Counts in Iran-Contra Indictment,” New York Times, June 17, 1992. 

“On the Republican firing line; Weinberger indictment puts prosecutor Lawrence Walsh in GOP crosshairs,” Boston Globe, June 21, 1992. 

“Bush is named in Weinberger indictment,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 21, 1992. 

“The 1992 Campaign: On the Attack; Clinton Accuses Reporters of Bias,” New York Times, Sept. 8, 1992.

“The Transition: Political Memo; Did New Iran Arms Data Do In Bush?” New York Times, Nov. 7. 1992.

“Dole Urges Walsh Investigation,” Associated Press, Nov. 9, 1992. 

“Walsh Probe Sought,” Newsday, Nov. 12, 1992. 

“Attorney General Rejects Independent Counsel Probe of Walsh,” Associated Press, Dec. 11, 1992. 

“Charge in Weinberger Case That Caused Furor Before Election Is Thrown Out,” New York Times, Dec. 12, 1992.

OUTRO SONG

“Rose Garden” by Lynn Anderson

By arrangement of The Orchard

Fiasco S2E7: “Olliewood” Bibliography

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL)

North, Oliver L. Under Fire: An American Story. HarperCollins, 1991. 

Schaller, Michael. Reckoning With Reagan: American and Its President in the 1980s. Oxford University Press, 1992. 

Toobin, Jeffrey. Opening Arguments: A Young Lawyer’s First Case. Viking, 1991. 

Walsh, Lawrence E. Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. Three Rivers Press, 1994. 

ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL)

“TV Docudrama: Questions of Ethics,” New York Times, Feb. 14, 1985. 

“The White House Crisis; Profile of the Colonel; Friends Say Oliver North Is Taking It Like A Soldier,” New York Times, Nov. 30, 1986. 

“Film: Clint Eastwood in ‘Heartbreak Ridge,’” New York Times, Dec. 5, 1986.

“A Sucker for a Man In Uniform; Star of Washington’s New Daytime Drama Sets Hearts Aflutter,” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 14, 1986.

“How North’s Role Could Be Played; Agents Rush For Film of Book of the Iran Affair,” Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), Dec. 22, 1986. 

“Pentagon Aides Say North Spent 10 Days in Hospital in 1974,” New York Times, Dec. 24, 1986. 

“Oliver North: The Marine becomes a hot property,” Philadelphia Inquirer, Feb. 13, 1987. 

“Spilling Ollie’s Guts,” Sacramento Bee, Feb. 27, 1987. 

“Iran-Contra Hearings; Cards and Calls (and Cash) Pour In for North, a Hero to Many Americans,” New York Times, Jul. 11, 1987. 

“Pranksters Alter ‘Hollywood’ Sign to ‘Ollywood’ To Honor Oliver North,” Associated Press, Jul. 20, 1987. 

“The Iran-Contra Hearings: Iran-Contra Hearings At An End: No Evidence Found of Reagan Wrongs but a Scar Remains,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 4, 1987. 

“‘Guts and glory’ of North to be made into TV film,” Palm Beach Post, Aug. 7, 1987. 

“Plans Dropped for Ollie Flick,” New York Daily News, Sep. 14, 1987. 

“Ollie North pep-talks Redskins,” UPI, Jan. 23, 1988. 

“Grand Jury Indicts Poindexter, North,” Chicago Tribune, Mar. 17, 1988. 

“Indictments Won’t Hamper Bush’s Campaign,” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, Mar. 17, 1988.

“The U.S. vs. North, Poindexter; Also indicted: Hakim, Secord,” Newsday, Mar. 17, 1988. 

“Walsh: I Heard Protected Testimony,” Chicago Tribune, Apr. 26, 1988. 

“Brooke flouts mom’s wishes, dates Woody,” The Spokesman-Review, May 4, 1988. 

“Court Is Asked to Allow Use of North’s Testimony At Trial,” New York Times, May 20, 1988. 

“Washington Talk: Iran-Contra Investigation; Immunity Decision: A Prosecutor’s Nightmare,” New York Times, Jun. 20, 1988. 

“North Suggests At GOP Fundraiser That Kadafi Endorses Dukakis,” Los Angeles Times, Sep. 30, 1988. 

“Prado Basin becomes El Salvador; Oliver North movie filming at area flood plain,” Orange County Register, Jan. 17, 1989. 

“The Other Oliver North Show; As Trial Opens, TV Drama is at Halfway Point,” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 31, 1989. 

“North Trial Opens After Long Delay,” New York Times, Feb. 22, 1989. 

“Television; Sensitive Mission: Retelling Oliver North’s Story,” New York Times, Mar. 19, 1989. 

“Jury Begins Deliberating North’s Fate,” Deseret News, Apr. 21, 1989. 

“Guts Has a Split Personality; Docudrama on North is Part Cartoon, Part Civics Lesson,” The Buffalo News, Apr. 28, 1989. 

“CBS ‘Guts and Glory’ Pale Imitation of Oliver North,” Washington Post, Apr. 29, 1989. 

“In ‘Guts and Glory,’ Oliver North story becomes even more muddy,” San Diego Union-Tribune, Apr. 30, 1989. 

“David Keith Gets Back in Uniform as Ollie North, the Officer and Gentleman of Guts & Glory,” People, May 1, 1989. 

“Bionic Duo Helps NBC to Another Weekly Nielsens Win,” Albuquerque Journal, May 3, 1989. 

“VERDICT: North is facing fines and prison time,” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, May 4, 1989. 

“Conviction costs North pension, pending appeal,” Associated Press, May 5, 1989. 

“Docudramas Are Chasing the News; ‘The Burning Bed’ blazed the trail for today’s ‘film-at-11’ TV movie,” Newsday, Feb. 25, 1990.

“Norman Lear on Why Archie Bunker Is More Relevant Than Ever,” Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2019. 

OUTRO MUSIC

“Hollywood Party” by Rodgers and Hart
By arrangement with The Orchard

Fiasco S2E6: “Fault Lines” Bibliography

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. Hill and Wang, 1991.

Hamilton, Lee H. and Inouye, Daniel K. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, With Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. (https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000847584)

Mayer, Jane and McManus, Doyle. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988.

McFarlane, Robert C. Special Trust. Cadell & Davies, 1994. 

Toobin, Jeffrey. Opening Arguments: A Young Lawyer’s First Case: United States. V. Oliver North. Viking, 1991. 

Tower, John; Muskie, Edmund and Scowcroft, Brent. The Tower Commission Report: The Full Text of the President’s Special Review Board. Bantam Books and Times Books, 1987. (https://archive.org/details/towercommission00unit/mode/2up)

Walsh, Lawrence E. Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER)

“John Nields; He’s no stranger to legal battles,” Washington Post, Jul. 30, 1983.

“Four-pronged probes into Iran-Conta dealings,” United Press International, Dec. 6, 1986. 

“House committee appoints four top staffers,” United Press International, Jan. 9, 1987.

“M’Farlane Inquiry Closed, Police Say,” New York Times, Feb. 11, 1987. (https://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/11/world/m-farlane-inquiry-closed-police-say.html)

“Panel quizzes McFarlane in hospital room,” UPI via Los Angeles Times, Feb. 19, 1987.

“Tower panel revisits McFarlane,” Miami Herald, Feb. 22, 1987.

“McFarlane goes home,” United Press International, Feb. 24, 1987. 

“Senate, House to Hold Joint Hearings on Iran Arms Deal: Poindexter, North to Get Immunity,” Associated Press via Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1987. (https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1987-03-18-mn-7911-story.html)

“McFarlane and the taunting glare of truth,” Washington Post, May 7, 1987.

“ … McFarlane’s Testimony Painful and Tearful,” Orlando Sentinel, May 14, 1987. 

“Hall Testifies of Necessity to ‘Go Above Written Law;’ North Walked ‘Fine Line,’ Ex-Secretary Says,” Washington Post, June 10, 1987. (https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/scandal/fawnhall.htm)

“North on the stand: long lines without, verbal fencing within,” Christian Science Monitor, Jul. 8, 1987. 

“North Brings Supportive Telegrams to Witness Table,” Associated Press, Jul. 10, 1987.

“Ollie-Oop!,” People, Jul. 27, 1987. 

“Bush Asserts Vindication in Iran Affair,” Washington Post, Aug. 6, 1987. (https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1987/08/06/bush-asserts-vindication-in-iran-affair/edd22f72-7177-4c22-a25a-dbba3b1524ad/)

“The Iran-Contra Committees: Did They Protect Reagan?” New York Times Magazine, Apr. 29, 1990.

Fiasco S2E5: “All Out” Bibliography

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. University Press of Kansas, 2014. 

Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. Hill & Wang, 1991. 

Hamilton, Lee H. and Inouye, Daniel K. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, With Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. (https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000847584)

Mayer, Jane and McManus, Doyle. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 

North, Oliver L. Under Fire: An American Story. HarperCollins, 1991. 

Wallison, Peter J. Ronald Reagan: The Power of Conviction and the Success of His Presidency. Westview Press, 2003. 

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. Three Rivers Press, 1994.

Wroe, Ann. Lives, Lies and the Iran-Contra Affair. I. B. Tauris, 1991. 

ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER)

“Smith quits Cabinet post; Reagan picks Edwin Meese successor to attorney general,” San Diego Union-Tribune, Jan. 23, 1984. 

“Senate Approves Meese to Become Attorney General,” New York Times, Feb. 24, 1985. 

“Iran is Said to Get U.S. Weapons Aid in a Hostage Deal,” New York Times, Nov. 7, 1986. 

“Iran-Contra Hearings; Official Urged Meese to Widen Staff in Inquiry,” New York Times, Jul. 30, 1987. 

“Hostile Witnesses,” Washington Post, Aug. 16, 1998.

“Reagan, Unscripted,” Vanity Fair, May 1, 2007. 

OUTRO MUSIC

“Diversion” by The Equals
By arrangement of The Orchard

Fiasco S2E4: “Diverted” Bibliography

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. University Press of Kansas, 2014. 

Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. Hill & Wang, 1991. 

Mayer, Jane and McManus, Doyle. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 

McFarlane, Robert C. Special Trust. Cadell & Davies, 1994. 

North, Oliver L. Under Fire: An American Story. HarperCollins, 1991. 

Secord, Richard. Honored and Betrayed: Irangate, Covert Affairs, and the Secret War in Laos. Wiley, 1992.

Teicher, Howard. Twin Pillars to Desert Storm: America’s Flawed Vision in the Middle East from Nixon to Bush. William Morrow & Company, 1993. 

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. Three Rivers Press, 1994. 

ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER)

“Ex-CIA Agent Guilty in Libyan Explosives Plot,” Cincinnati Enquirer, Feb. 6, 1983. 

“Ex-CIA agent Wilson gets second conviction,” Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 7, 1983.

“Image, Money Woes Haunt Contras,” Miami Herald, Jun. 15, 1986. 

“House, in Reversal, Backs Reagan Plan For Aid to Contras,” Washington Post, Jun. 26, 1986. 

“Roll-Call On Contra Aid,” Associated Press, Jun. 26, 1986. 

“Iranian Claims Gift-Bearing U.S. Envoy Was Expelled,” Chicago Tribune, Nov. 5, 1986. 

“Secord Set Up Network With CIA as Model: Denies That He Tried Later to Sell Out to Agency at a Profit,” Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1987. 

“IRAN-CONTRA HEARINGS; Memo Details How a Frustrated Reagan Pondered Ways to Get Aid to the Contras,” New York Times, Jul. 11, 1987. 

OUTRO MUSIC

“Secrets” by Bobby Womack
By arrangement with The Orchard

Fiasco S2E3: "Contra Dance" Bibliography

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL)

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Gutman, Roy. Banana Diplomacy: The Making of American Policy in Nicaragua, 1981-1987. Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Kagan, Robert. A Twilight Struggle: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977-1990. Free Press, 1996.

Kinzer, Steven. Blood of Brothers: Life and War in Nicaragua. Harvard University Press, 2007.

Mayer, Jane and Doyle McManus. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988.

North, Oliver L. Under Fire: An American Story. HarperCollins, 1991. 

Perla, Jr., Héctor. Sandinista Nicaragua’s Resistance to US Coercion: Revolutionary Deterrence in Asymmetric Conflict. Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in U.S. Foreign Policy: The Controversy Over Contra Aid. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1993.

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. Three Rivers Press, 1994. 

Wroe, Ann. Lives, Lies and the Iran-Contra Affair. I.B. Tauris, 1992.

ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL)

“Sandinistas Disclaim Marxism,” Washington Post, Oct. 16, 1978.

“Nicaragua declares state of siege after bridges bombed,” Christian Science Monitor, Mar. 17, 1982.

“Nicaragua Asks Security Council to Rebuke U.S.,” New York Times, Mar. 20, 1982.

“A Secret War for Nicaragua,” Newsweek, Nov. 1, 1982.

“Nicaragua exiles say they plan to revolt,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Dec. 8, 1982.

“U.S. Role in Mining Nicaraguan Harbors Reportedly Is Larger Than First Thought,” Wall Street Journal, Apr. 6, 1984.

“Confessions of a ‘Contra,'” The New Republic, Aug. 5, 1985.

“Author of Sandinista Anthem Reportedly Defects in Spain,” Associated Press, Dec. 16, 1988.

“US Will Warn Contras: No Military Attacks During Diplomatic Efforts,” Los Angeles Times, Mar. 15, 1989.

“Ellen Garwood, 89, A Prominent Donor to Nicaraguan Rebels,” New York Times, Mar. 23, 1993.

“A Modest Magician: Will Clayton and the Rebuilding of Europe,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 1997.

“Holding America to Its Own Best Standards: Abe Chayes and Nicaragua in the World Court,” Harvard International Law Journal, 2001.

OUTRO MUSIC

“Nicaragua Sandinista” by Kortatu
By arrangement with The Orchard

Fiasco S2E2: “Trade Secrets” Bibliography

Hello Fiasco listeners! 

Below is our best effort at documenting all the sources the Fiasco team consulted when researching and writing episode 2 of Fiasco season 2: “Trade Secrets.” Citing every source in the podcast itself is unfeasible; we have to be judicious about the number of historians and journalists we namecheck when presenting information. But all the information on Fiasco came from somewhere, and this is our attempt to give credit where it’s due in an exact and (hopefully) comprehensive way.

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan’s Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power, University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Caryl, Christian. Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century. Basic Books, 2014.

Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. Hill and Wang, 1991. 

Johnson, Haynes. Sleepwalking Through History: America in the Reagan Years. Norton, 1991.

Kinzer, Stephen. All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

Ledeen, Michael. Perilous Statecraft, Scribner 1988.

Mayer, Jane and McManus, Doyle. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 

McFarlane, Robert and Zofia Smardz. Special Trust, Cadell & Davies, 1994.

Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb’allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan, 1996.

Weir, Ben and Carol; Benson, Dennis. Hostage Bound Hostage Free. Westminster John Knox Press, 1987.

NEWSPAPER, MAGAZINE, SCHOLARLY ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL)

“Two Pilots Among Eight Dead in Hostage Rescue Attempt,” Associated Press, April 25, 1980.

“Inauguration, Hostage Release Makes Reagan Day Perfect,” UPI via The Columbus Republic, Jan. 21, 1981.

Smith, Terence. “A Weary Carter Returns to Plains,” The New York Times, Jan. 21, 1981.

“3 U.S. Hostages in Beirut Alive, 1 Says on Tape,” The Los Angeles Times, Jan. 29, 1985.

A Taped Reminder of the American Hostages in Beirut,” The New York Times, Feb. 3, 1985.

“Freedom campaign is urged; Wife speaking out for abducted pastor,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, March 18, 1985.

“Church to Air Kidnap Victim’s Plea; Weir Family Assails U.S. Failure to Free Missionary,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1985.

Gelb, Leslie H. “Taking Charge,” The New York Times, May 26, 1985.

HOSTAGES IN LEBANON; Other Americans Held in Lebanon,” New York Times, June 20, 1985.

Weinraub, Bernard. “Reagan’s Doctors Find Cancer in Tumor But Report Removal Leaves His Chances Excellent,” The New York Times, July 16, 1985.

Halloran, Richard. “American Hostage in Lebanon Freed After 16 Months,” The New York Times, Sept. 19, 1985.

“Clergyman Said By Son to Have ‘Tremendous Inner Resources,’ Associated Press, Sept. 19, 1985.

“Captives’ Letters Allay Families’ Fears; Administration Reiterates Policy of Not Negotiating With Terrorists,” The Washington Post, Nov 9, 1985.

“Post says ’84 Beirut hostage Buckley was a CIA official,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, Nov. 25, 1986.

Anderson, Raymond H. “Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 89, the Unwavering Iranian Spiritual Leader,” The New York Times, June 4, 1989.  

Cusick, John. “Obituaries: The Rev Lawrence Jenco,” The Independent, Aug. 10, 1996.

Bowden, Mark. “The Desert One Debacle,” The Atlantic Monthly, May 2006.

Kamarck, Elaine. “The Iranian hostage crisis and its effect on American politics,” Brookings Institution, Nov. 4, 2019.

Mervosh, Sarah. “The 52 Iran Hostages Felt Forgotten. Here’s What They Wish Would Happen Now,” The New York Times, Jan. 6, 2020.

OTHER

Iran-Contra Investigation Report. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, 1989.

Walsh, Lawrence. Iran-Contra: The Final Report, Three Rivers Press, 1994.

Fiasco S2E1: “Get Me Kevin Kattke” Bibliography

Hello Fiasco listeners!

Below is our best effort at documenting all the sources the Fiasco team consulted when researching and writing episode 1 of Fiasco season 2: “Get Me Kevin Kattke.” Citing every source in the podcast itself is unfeasible; we have to be judicious about the number of historians and journalists we namecheck when presenting information. But all the information on Fiasco came from somewhere, and this is our attempt to give credit where it’s due in an exact and (hopefully) comprehensive way.

BOOKS (ALPHABETICAL ORDER) 

Bradlee, Jr., Ben. Guts and Glory: The Rise and Fall of Oliver North. Donald Fine, 1988. 

Clarridge, Duane. A Spy For All Seasons: My Life in the CIA. Scribner, 1997.

Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. Hill and Wang, 1991. 

Hertzgaard, Mark. On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1988. 

Mayer, Jane and McManus, Doyle. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 

Menges, Constantine. Inside the National Security Council: The True Story of the Making and Unmaking of Reagan’s Foreign Policy. Simon & Schuster, 1988. 

North, Oliver with William Novak. Under Fire: An American Story. 21st Century Press, 1991. 

Sharkey, Jacqueline. U. S. Military Restrictions on the Media from Grenada to the Persian GulfThe Center for Public Integrity. University Press Of America, 1995. 

NEWSPAPER, MAGAZINE, SCHOLARLY ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL) 

“Revolution: Front-Row Seats at Grenada Tempest,” Minneapolis Star, April 5, 1979. 

“U.S. based group dedicated to Grenada’s PRG overthrow,” The Daily Cleaner, June 15, 1983.    

“Coup in Grenada Apparently Thwarted,” The Napa Valley Register, Oct. 15, 1983. 

Leader of Grenada is Reportedly Killed by Troops,” Associated Press via New York Times. Oct. 20, 1983.  

“1,900 Marines steam toward Grenada,” UPI via Bennington Banner, Oct. 22, 1983. 

“Caribbean leaders discuss U.S. intervention,” Kingsport Times-News, Oct. 24, 1983. 

“Gunman demands to see Reagan,” Associated Press via Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, Oct. 24, 1983.  

Bohning, Don. “A peculiar war indeed,” Akron Beacon Journal, Oct. 28, 1983. 

McFadden, Robert. “From Rescued Students, Gratitude and Praise,” New York Times, Oct. 28, 1983.  

Greve, Frank. “Intelligence flaws cited in investigation,” Miami Herald, Oct. 29, 1983. 

“Student Glad to Be To Be Out of Grenada,” UPI via Lebanon Sunday Pennsylvanian, Oct. 30, 1983.  

Tyler, Patrick. “The Making of an Invasion: Chronology of the Planning,” New York Times, Oct. 30, 1983.

Hughes, Alister. “Publisher saw war unfold behind bars,” Baltimore Sun, Oct. 30 1986.

Bourne, Peter G., “U.S. and Grenadians were both big losers,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Oct. 31, 1983. 

“U.S. Forces in Grenada Outraged by Poor Intelligence,” Associated Press via St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Oct. 31, 1983.  

Taylor Jr., Stuart, “In Wake of Invasion, Much Official Misinformation by U.S. Comes to Light,” New York Times, Nov. 6, 1983.

Chayes, Abram. “Grenada was illegally invaded,” New York Times, Nov. 15, 1983. 

Bell, Wendell. “The American invasion of Grenada: a note on false prophecy,” Foresight, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2008. Originally published in The Yale Review, Vol. 75, Nov. 4, 1986.  

 14 Convicted of Murdering Grenada Leader, 10 Others,” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 5, 1986.  

Harris, Art. “The Abiding Riddle of Oliver North,” Washington Post, Dec. 23, 1986. 

Schneider, Keith. “North’s Record: A Wide Role in a Host of Sensitive Projects,” New York Times, Jan. 3, 1987.

Col. North’s Ribbons Show His Career,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, July 8, 1987. 

Stacks, John. “The Marine’s Private Army,” Time, July 13 1987.

Cummins, Ken. “Amateur Agents Ran Missions for North,” Orlando Sentinel, Aug. 9, 1987. 

Renfrew, Nita and Blauner, Peter. “Ollie’s Army: How a Macy’s Engineer and His Pals Became Rogue American Agents,” New York Magazine, Dec. 7, 1987.  

Vitello, Paul. “Freeport’s Freedom Fighters,” Newsday, Feb. 19, 1989.

Dionne, E.J., “Kicking the ‘Vietnam Syndrome,” Washington Post, March 4, 1991.  

Andersen, Robin. “Invading Grenada: Selling the modern era’s first ‘pre-emptive’ war,” Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting. Jan. 1, 2007. 

OTHER  

Cole, Richard H. “Operation Urgent Fury,” Joint Chiefs of State, Joint History Office. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: War Crimes: Part II, July 7, 1971. 

Iran-Contra Investigation Report. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, 1989.

“Grenada,” The World Factbook Archive, Last Updated: January 28, 2020. 

Wilder, Anne Elizabeth. Michael Joseph St. Bernard Sylvester [1935-2006], The Grenada Revolution Online

OUTRO MUSIC:

“Commie Lies”
Performed by: Janet Greene
Courtesy of: Spunky Monkey Music
By arrangement with The Orchard